Characteristics and classification of dangerous goods
This section provides information to your attention about the danger of each class, their physical and chemical properties, types, and the risk degree during transportation of dangerous goods. According to the classification of dangerous goods they are divided into sub-classes, categories and groups.
1. Class 1: Explosives which have explosive properties and could cause fire explosive action; devices that contain explosives; various means of explosion which are used for pyrotechnical effects:
- subclass 1.1. - Pyrotechnic and explosive articles and substances which have a mass explosion hazard, with the explosion all of cargo;
- subclass 1.2. - Pyrotechnic and explosive articles and substances that do not have a mass explosion hazard;
- subclass 1.3. - Pyrotechnic and explosive substances and products with have low explosive effect or do not, but have a fire hazard;
- subclass 1.4. - Pyrotechnic and explosive substances and products with low levels of explosion nisk during transportation and with a high possibility of explosion in case of initiation or ignition (packing and devices are not destroying);
- subclass 1.5. - Insensitive explosives with a mass explosion hazard that practically couldn’t detonate even during burning;
- subclass 1.6. - Products that contain substances insensitive for detonating, with a low probability of accidental initiation or exploding mass.
2. Class 2: reduced by cooling, dissolved under pressure compressed gases, which meet one or more of the conditions listed below:
- critical temperature is below 50 degrees. Depending on physical state, gases are divided into compressed (a measure of the critical temperature is below -10 degrees), liquefied (critical temperature indicator is greater than or equal to -10 degrees but less than 70 degrees), liquefied gases (outside a critical temperature: equal to or higher than 70 degrees) dissolved under pressure, liquefied by overcooling, compressed gases and aerosols, which are subject to special regulations.
- subclass 2.1. – Non-flammable gases;
- subclass 2.2. - Toxic, non-flammable gases;
- subclass 2.3. - Flammable gases;
- subclass 2.4. - Toxic flammable gases;
- subclass 2.5. - Unstable gases;
- subclass 2.5. - Toxic unstable gases;
3. Class 3: a mixture of liquids, flammable liquids, liquids that contain solids in suspension or solution of salt, liquids, evolving flammable vapor which have flash point in a closed crucible equal to 61 degrees or below:
- subclass 3.1. - Flammable liquids with a low flash point and the temperature of the liquid (flash point in a closed crucible is below -18 degrees);
- subclass 3.2. - Flammable liquid, the average temperature of the flash point of which is from -18 to +23 degrees;
- subclass 3.3. - Flammable liquid which has flash point in a closed crucible in range from +23 to +61 degrees.
4. Class 4: flammable materials and substances (except of explosives) that may be easily ignited by any external ignition source as a result of moisture absorption of, abrasion, heat or spontaneous chemical reactions during transportation of dangerous goods:
- subclass 4.1. - Flammable solids, which can easily be ignited by brief exposure of friction, fire or sparks, and they ]actively burn;
- subclass 4.2. - Pyrophoric substances which can spontaneously ignite and heat under normal transportation;
- subclass 4.3. - Substances which emit flammable gases when contact water.
5. Class 5: organic peroxides and oxidizing agents, easily proding oxygen and sustain combustion, capable to cause explosions and spontaneous combustion under appropriate conditions or when mixed with other substances:
- subclass 5.1. - Oxidizing agents, not flammable themselves, but can cause rapid ignition of other substances that produce oxygen during combustion, thereby increasing the intensity of the flame;
- subclass 5.2. - Organic peroxides, combustible, in most cases, capable act as oxidizing substances, dangerously interact with other substances (some of which are very sensitive to friction and impact, easily start to burn).
6. Class 6: infectious and toxic substances that can cause poisoning, disease or death, getting into the body, or in contact with mucous membranes or skin:
- subclass 6.1. - Poisonous (toxic) substances that may cause severe poisoning when entering th body, if contact with skin or by inhalation;
- subclass 6.2. - Materials and substances which contain hazardous microorganisms for living beings.
7. Class 7: radioactive substancesspecific activity of which is more than 2 nCi/g (70kBq/kg)..
8. Class 8: corrosive and caustic substances affecting the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes, damaging the skin, causing damage to buildings, cargoes vehicles and metal corrosion, materials causing fire, when interacting with certain chemicals and organic:
- subclass 8.1. - an alkali;
- subclass 8.2. - acid;
- subclass 8.3. - corrosive and caustic substances.
9. Class 9: substances with low danger during carriage of dangerous goods, which do not belong to any of the above categories, but require special terms of storage and transportation.
- subclass 9.1. - liquid and solid combustible materials and substances that do not belong to the 3 rd and 4 th types, but under certain conditions, becoming a fire hazard (eg, fibers and similar materials, flammable liquids, which flash temperature can reach 61-100 degrees in closed crucible).
- subclass 9.2. - substances which become corrosive or caustic only under certain conditions.